Ep. 03 - Hi-BEAR-nation

Episode Notes:

I think the title speaks for itself...

Questions that came up in the episode:

Flying Squirrels More Populous than Reds and Grays?

During this episode, Bill mentioned a statistic he’d heard, claiming that Flying Squirrels outnumbered Red and Gray Squirrels in the Northeast. After recording episode 3, Bill tried to track down any credible sources, but he found not a single reference to this claim on any website, blog, or scientific paper. Unless someone out there has a reliable source to back up this statistic, we’ll have to conclude that Bill just made this up.*

*UPDATE - BILL WAS RIGHT! At least in Ohio, that is. A big thank you to Randy from Bowling Green who sent us a link to Ohio's Department of Natural Resources and their page on the Southern Flying Squirrel. It states, "The flying squirrel is the most common squirrel in Ohio. Because they are nocturnal and seldom seen, most people don't recognize that they live with flying squirrels." While we wish that this info was linked to the research, we're going to trust that Ohio's DNR know what they're talking about because Bill's ego is fragile and he really wants to to be right. http://wildlife.ohiodnr.gov/species-and-habitats/species-guide-index/mammals/southern-flying-squirrel


I'm sure we will find out.

Work Cited: 

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Breukelen, Frank van, and Sandra L. Martin. "The hibernation continuum: physiological and molecular aspects of metabolic plasticity in mammals."Physiology 30.4 (2015): 273-281.

Burt, William Henry. A field guide to the mammals: North America north of Mexico. Vol. 5. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1980.

Daan, Serge, Brain M. Barnes, and Arjen M. Strijkstra. "Warming up for sleep?—ground squirrels sleep during arousals from hibernation." Neuroscience letters 128.2 (1991): 265-268.

Ditmer, Mark A., Thomas E. Burk, and David L. Garshelis. "Do innate food preferences and learning affect crop raiding by American black bears?." Ursus 26.1 (2015): 40-52.

Donahue, Seth W., et al. "Serum markers of bone metabolism show bone loss in hibernating bears." Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 408 (2003): 295-301.

Donahue, Seth W., et al. "Parathyroid hormone may maintain bone formation in hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) to prevent disuse osteoporosis." Journal of Experimental Biology 209.9 (2006): 1630-1638.

Fuster, Gemma, et al. "Antiproteolytic effects of plasma from hibernating bears: a new approach for muscle wasting therapy?." Clinical Nutrition 26.5 (2007): 658-661.

Goodrich, John M., and Joel Berger. "Winter recreation and hibernating black bears Ursus americanus." Biological Conservation 67.2 (1994): 105-110.

Heldmaier, Gerhard. "Life on low flame in hibernation." Science 331.6019 (2011): 866-867.

Herrero, Stephen. "Aspects of evolution and adaptation in American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) and brown and grizzly bears (U. arctos Linne.) of North America." Bears: Their biology and management (1972): 221-231.

Jani, Alkesh, et al. "Renal adaptation during hibernation." American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology 305.11 (2013): F1521-F1532.

Laske, Timothy G., David L. Garshelis, and Paul A. Iaizzo. "Monitoring the wild black bear's reaction to human and environmental stressors." BMC Physiology11.1 (2011): 13.

McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E., et al. "Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation)." Bone 45.6 (2009): 1186-1191.

McGee-Lawrence, Meghan, et al. "Suppressed bone remodeling in black bears conserves energy and bone mass during hibernation." The Journal of Experimental Biology 218.13 (2015): 2067-2074.

Spector, David A., et al. "The urothelium of a hibernator: the American black bear." Physiological Reports 3.6 (2015): e12429.

Tøien, Øivind, et al. "Hibernation in black bears: independence of metabolic suppression from body temperature." Science 331.6019 (2011): 906-909.

Vaughan, Terry A., James M. Ryan, and Nicholas J. Czaplewski. Mammalogy. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2013.