This week Steve leads the discussion on "ice spikes." This is a rare winter phenomenon that Bill and Steve stumbled across at Stiglmeier Park (Cheektowaga, NY) during January, 2016. Join the guys as they run through two (presumably) incorrect hypotheses on how ice spikes form, and one well-documented method for their formation within freezers. We also explore the conditions that increase the chance of ice spikes forming in natural areas. While the episode mainly focuses on the "spike" form, "vase," "candle," and "tower" forms are also possible.
Carter, James R., Dr. "Ice Formations Diurnal Freeze-Thaw Cycles." Ice Formations Diurnal Freeze-Thaw Cycles. Illinois State University, n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2016. <http://my.ilstu.edu/~jrcarter/ice/diurnal/>.
Hill, Lesley, Edward Lozowski, and Russell D. Sampson. "Experiments on ice spikes and a simple growth model." Journal of Glaciology 50.170 (2004): 375-381.
Libbrecht, Kenneth G., and Kevin Lui. "An investigation of laboratory-grown ice spikes." Journal of Glaciology 50.170 (2004): 371-374.
Olovsson, Ivar. Snow, Ice and Other Wonders of Water: A Tribute to the Hydrogen Bond. World Scientific, 2015.
Samuel, Ä. Ö. Ö. "The Effect of Chemical Additives on Ice-Spike Formation." The Board of Trustees of the Center for Excellence in Education: 31