Bonus 04 - The Eastern Hemlock

Eastern Hemlocks are a staple of northeastern US forests. During this bonus episode, Steve and Bill make some tea and dive into what makes this tree so special. Historically, Hemlock has experienced 3 major declines, with the most recent happening right now. The culprit is an introduced hemipteran from Asia. Later this month, the guys will release a regular episode on that insect. But for now, enjoy this primer for episode 23!

Our 2 episode about sap, 17 & 18:

Urban Wildlife Podcast -
Things that go Flap in the Night: Nighthawks and Bats at the Cemetery:

Sorry for the quieter audio in some parts (especially Bill's lines)! The wind made editing difficult this month. Next time, we promise to stand closer to the mic (especially Bill).

Work Cited:
Browse taxonomic tree - Pinaceae. Retrieved November 13, 2017, from

Eastman, J., 1992. Forest and Thicket, The Book of: Trees, Shrubs, and Wildflowers of Eastern North America.

Ellison, A.M., Bank, M.S., Clinton, B.D., Colburn, E.A., Elliott, K., Ford, C.R., Foster, D.R., Kloeppel, B.D., Knoepp, J.D., Lovett, G.M. and Mohan, J., 2005. Loss of foundation species: consequences for the structure and dynamics of forested ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 3(9), pp.479-486.

Glimn-Lacy, J. and Kaufman, P.B., 1984. Botany illustrated: introduction to plants, major groups, flowering plant families. Springer Science & Business Media.

Havill, N.P., Campbell, C.S., Vining, T.F., LePage, B., Bayer, R.J. and Donoghue, M.J., 2008. Phylogeny and biogeography of Tsuga (Pinaceae) inferred from nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast DNA sequence data. Systematic Botany, 33(3), pp.478-789.

Little, E.L., 1980. National Audubon Society field guide to trees, eastern region. Alfred A.

Petrides, G.A., 1973. A field guide to trees and shrubs: northeastern and north-central United States and southeastern and south-central Canada. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Pinaceae. 2017, November 6. Retrieved November 13, 2017, from