This episode is all about the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (HWA)! Steve and Bill explain this insect's history, biology, and how it effects Eastern and Carolina Hemlocks. The guys dive into what damage has already been done, what damage is still projected to happen, and what we're currently doing to stop the spread of this destructive asian hemipteran! We hope you enjoy!
Department of Agriculture HWA page:
Sorry for the quiet audio and mic noise! We'll do better next time! Also, sorry about the rough audio quality. It sounds great in Premiere Pro and it sounds great as a .wav file, but when I export the episode as an mp3, it sounds weird. It's clearly a compression issue, but .wav files are way too big to upload. This hasn't been an issue on previous episodes and hopefully it won't be a problem in the future. Thank you for understanding.
Ep. 17 & 18:
Nicholas A. Tonelli - Telltale (04-07-2013)
“Hemlock Woolly Adelgid.” Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, NYS Dept. of Environmental Conservation, www.dec.ny.gov/animals/7250.html.
“Hemlock Woolly Adelgid.” Pest Alert - Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, USDA Forest Service Northeastern Area, Aug. 2015, www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/pest_al/hemlock/hwa05.htm.
Cheah, C., M. E. Montgomery, S. Salom, B. L. Parker, S. Costa, and M. Skinner, 2004. Biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid. USDA For. Serv. FHTET-2004-04, Reardon, R. and B. Onken (Tech. Coordinators), 22pp.
Ellison, A.M., Bank, M.S., Clinton, B.D., Colburn, E.A., Elliott, K., Ford, C.R., Foster, D.R., Kloeppel, B.D., Knoepp, J.D., Lovett, G.M. and Mohan, J., 2005. Loss of foundation species: consequences for the structure and dynamics of forested ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 3(9), pp.479-486.
Favret, C., Havill, N.P., Miller, G.L., Sano, M. and Victor, B., 2015. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae). ZooKeys, (534), p.35.
Havill, N.P., Vieira, L.C. and Salom, S.M., 2014. Biology and control of hemlock woolly adelgid (pp. 1-21). United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team.
Kenaley, S.C. and Hudler, G.W., 2010. Hemlock twig rust caused by Melampsora farlowii (Arth.) Davis. Hemlock twig rust caused by Melampsora farlowii (Arth.) Davis.
Letheren, A., Hill, S., Salie, J., Parkman, J. and Chen, J., 2017. A Little Bug with a Big Bite: Impact of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Infestations on Forest Ecosystems in the Eastern USA and Potential Control Strategies. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(4), p.438.
McClure, M.S., 1989. Evidence of a polymorphic life cycle in the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 82(1), pp.50-54.
Montgomery, M.E., Bentz, S.E. and Olsen, R.T., 2009. Evaluation of hemlock (Tsuga) species and hybrids for resistance to Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) using artificial infestation. Journal of economic entomology, 102(3), pp.1247-1254.
National Invasive Species Information Center. “Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae).” National Invasive Species Information Center, United States Department of Agriculture, 2 Nov. 2017, www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/animals/hwa.shtml.
Preisser, E.L., Oten, K.L. and Hain, F.P., 2014. Hemlock woolly adelgid in the Eastern United States: What have we learned?.